Monday, July 17, 2017

Inkuisisi dan Imparsialitas

Dahulu, negara-negara Eropa berlandaskan pada kekuasaan Feodal dan agama Kristen yang mengakui gereja Katolik sebagai otoritas kekristenan. Mereka takut bahwa Eropa akan hancur ketika dasar-dasar mereka dirusak, baik oleh pemeluk Islam (termasuk yang mungkin masih sembunyi pura-pura jadi Kristen), pemeluk Yahudi, maupun kepercayaan-kepercayaan pagan lama (yang juga sembunyi-sembunyi pura-pura jadi Kristen).

Yahudi, ditolerir karena kemampuan mereka mengelola keuangan namun ada politik isolasi 'ala ghetto, untuk mencegah percampuran antara kaum Yahudi dan rakyat mereka yang taat pada Kristen. Selain melalui politik, dalam khotbah gereja sehari-hari pun, kaum Yahudi juga digambarkan sebagai sosok yang berbahaya sehingga rakyat pun tak berani bersahabat dengan Yahudi.

Sementara itu, untuk mencegah pencemaran rakyat oleh oknum non-kristiani (Islam dan Pagan) yang sembunyi-sembunyi di balik topeng rakyat, mereka membentuk inkuisisi untuk mengadili hal-hal semacam ini. Awalnya, mereka masih menggunakan model penuntut dari rakyat (atau pihak non-gereja) dan pengadilan dan si penuntut masih bisa dilawan balik bila terbukti mengada-ada (lex talionis).

Seiring berjalannya waktu, ketakutan mereka terhadap kaum-kaum radikal ini membuat mereka merasa sistem pengadilan yang selama ini berjalan membuat penyelidikan dan penindakan berjalan terlalu lambat. Akhirnya mereka menggunakan konsep pengadilan semu, di mana mereka mengesankan ada jaksa dan hakim tetapi sebenarnya keduanya berasal dari lembaga yang sama.

Tentu saja, kita bisa membayangkan seandainya ada yang mengkritik pengadilan-semu macam itu, paling dijawab seperti ini:  "kalau merasa kristen sejati, bukan orang sesat seharusnya tidak perlu takut pada inkuisisi". Yah, kita sudah tahu bagaimana akhir cerita dari sistem 'keadilan' macam itu di mana si penuduh sekaligus menjadi hakim dan tertuduh tak punya kesempatan membela diri.


PS:
baru nyadar, ternyata ada beberapa jenis inkuisisi dalam sejarah Eropa.

Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Bahaya Perpu No 2 Tahun 2017 pengganti UU Ormas no 17 tahun 2013

1. Adanya tambahan sanksi pidana untuk ormas (sila cek perubahan pasal 60). Bahayanya adalah, siapapun anggota ormas yang dituding melanggar, walau secara individu tidak melakukan kejahatan itu, bakal ikut terseret dengan ancaman pidana 1-20 tahun (pasal 82A)

2. Pencabutan status badan hukum cukup dilakukan oleh menteri yang berwenang dalam bidang Hukum dan HAM saja (perubahan pada pasal 62 ayat 3)

3. Ormas yang melanggar hanya sekali diberikan peringatan (perubahan pasal 62 dan penghapusan pasal 63 dan 64).

4. Mahkamah Agung tidak memiliki peran apa-apa (penghapusan pasal 65, 67)

5. Pengadilan sama sekali tidak berperan dalam pemutusan pembubaran Ormas (penghapusan pasal 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78)

Contoh kasus:
Anda tertarik bergabung kepada FPI di kota anda karena anda percaya FPI membela Islam, membasmi kemaksiatan. Kebetulan pengurus FPI di kota anda mengambil strategi jalur hukum dan persuasif dalam membasmi kemaksiatan. Sayangnya, di kota-kota lain, FPI menggunakan jalur kekerasan dan akhirnya Menteri memutuskan FPI melanggar Pasal 59 ayat 3. Maka tanpa kesempatan melawan di pengadilan, anda dan teman-teman di kota anda yang tidak pernah pakai jalur kekerasan, juga ikut terkena getah dipidana.

Ganti FPI dengan kelompok apapun, misalnya Greenpeace, Serikat Buruh, dan sebangsanya... hanya karena ada kejadian salah satu cabang melakukan jalur kekerasan atau mengganggu ketertiban umum, semua anggota bisa terkena getahnya.

Oh iya, jangan lupa bahwa Pasal 59 ayat 4c tentang larangan ormas bertentangan dengan Pancasila adalah pasal karet. Organisasi seperti kelompok pendukung LGBT dan kelompok Ateis juga berpotensi mendapat kriminalisasi yang sama dengan tuduhan tidak sesuai Pancasila.

Dan oh iya, sekali lagi,
sekali dapat tudingan, ormas tak punya kesempatan membela diri di depan Pengadilan.

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Metamorfosis Kunderemp

Dahulu, di situs lama, saya sempat menampilkan foto-foto perubahan dari tahun ke tahun.
Karena situs tersebut sudah menghilang,
sekarang saya menampilkan kembali perubahan wajahku dari tahun ke tahun.



Kelas 1 SD (1988)
Masih imut-imut, belum nakal.

Kelas 5 SD (1993)


Saya malah lupa, kenapa saya punya foto ini.

Kelas 6 SD (1994)
Badan saya menggemuk cukup drastis pasca sunat.

Kelas 2 SMU (1998)

 

Kelas 3 SMU (1999-2000)


 Foto yang kanan diambil awal tahun 2000.

Universitas Gadjah Mada (2000)



 Hanya dalam waktu 6 bulan, berat badan saya berkurang dari 60 kg menjadi 48 kg (turun 12 kg)

Universitas Indonesia (hmm.. 2003? 2004?)

Berat badan mulai normal lagi.

Setelah kembali dari Bali (hmm.. 2012? 2013?)


Foto Terakhir ( 2017 )



Menanggapi Kicauan Felix Siauw Perkara Membaca Terjemahan

Itikaf itu kesempatan memahami agama, saran saya coba ambil waktu pas itikaf, baca terjemahan Al-Quran sampai kelar, biar lebih paham :)
-- Felix Siauw, di Twitter 18 Juni 2017

Kicauan Felix Siauw itu menuai beberapa ejekan karena Felix Siauw menggunakan kata "terjemahan". Karena saya cenderung iba, saya terpancing untuk membelanya. Namun, baru saja mau bikin status Facebook membela kicauan Felix Siauw, lalu lihat kicauan 3 menit sebelumnya posting.
Langsung hapus status. Tak usah dibela ah.

Sebenarnya, kicauan Felix Siauw yang satu itu (tanggal 18 Juni) benar bila berdiri sendiri. Saya setuju ama saran beliau. Namun ternyata kicauan itu terkait kicauan 3 menit sebelumnya.

Tak ada yang salah dengan membaca AlQuran terjemahan dari awal sampai akhir. Setidaknya, bisa mendapatkan garis besar tentang agama Islam.

Yang salah adalah merasa sudah sangat memahami hanya dengan membaca terjemahannya belaka. Padahal, layaknya bahasa lain, Bahasa Arab pun memiliki pergeseran makna. Apalagi ketika sudah terserap ke dalam pergaulan di komunitas berbahasa non-Arab.

Kata "munafik" misalnya, dalam pergaulan sehari-hari di Indonesia, masyarakat biasanya membayangkan seseorang yang lain perkataan, lain di hati. Celakanya, orang yang menahan nafsu yang menggelora pun kadang dicela sebagai "munafik". Padahal sebenarnya tidak demikian arti kata munafik.

Nah, agak bahaya kalau hanya mengandalkan terjemahan sementara pengertian yang ada barulah pada tahap "pengertian awam".

Itulah gunanya tafsir, di mana ulama menjelaskan panjang kali lebar tiap kata, kadang diberikan contoh pemahaman Nabi dan para Sahabat.

Monday, June 19, 2017

Kumpulan Kutipan Akhir Riwayat Raja Terakhir Majapahit

Saya menolak mempercayai Majapahit menjadi Kerajaan Islam bahkan hingga di masa akhir di mana masyarakat Islam sudah cukup banyak di Kerajaan ini dan ada riwayat yang mengatakan Raja Majapahit terakhir beragama Islam.

Ada beberapa versi akhir riwayat Majapahit tetapi semuanya selalu sama:
1. Majapahit diserbu (entah penyerbunya Demak atau Kediri);
2. Raja Majapahit (Brawijaya V) belum beragama Islam saat penyerbuan.

Beberapa versi riwayatnya antara lain:
1. Raja Majapahit terakhir tewas dalam penyerbuan;
2. Raja Majapahit terakhir melarikan diri;
3. Raja Majapahit terakhir melarikan diri kemudian setelah dibujuk, pindah ke agama Islam;
4. Raja Majapahit terakhir memilih jalan moksha.

Tak ada satupun dari versi yang saya temukan menyebutkan semasa menjadi raja, Brawijaya V menjadi Islam walaupun ada anggota keluarganya yang sudah beragama Islam.

Berikut adalah kutipan-kutipan dari buku-buku dan artikel jurnal yang saya baca sepintas lalu, menghabiskan waktu saya selama 4 jam terakhir sia-sia. (oh iya, kutipan ini seenaknya saya potong karena terlalu panjang kalau saya kutip semuanya).


1. dalam membahas Sunan Tembayat, Arifuddin Ismail menyebutkan salah satu versi mengatakan Sunan Tembayat adalah Prabu Brawijaya V setelah runtuhnya Majapahit.

Mesti kedudukan Sunan Tembayat sebagai salah satu anggota Walisongo masih diperdebatkan tetapi statusnya sebagai seorang wali di tanah Jawa tidak diragukan lagi. Ia dikenal sebagai orang yang telah berjasa menyebarkan agama Islam di daerah Jawa Tengah Bagian Selatan (Purwadi dan Maharsi, 2005: 63). Atas petunjuk Sunan Kalijaga, beliau meninggalkan Semarang menuju Jabalkat yang berada di Bayat demi memenuhi perintah sang guru.

Mengenai silsilah Sunan Tembayat ada banyak versi. Ada yang mengatakan beliau adalah Brawijaya V (penguasa terakhir Majapahit yang oleh banyak literature dikatakan moksa), ada yang mengatakan beliau adalah putera Brawijaya V. Selain terkait dengan Majapahit, adapula sumber yang mengatakan bahwa beliau adalah anak dari saudagar Timur Tengah yang bernama Abdullah (dan kemudian bergelar Sunan Pandan Arang I) yang meminta ijin kepada Sultan Demak untuk berdagang dan bertempat tinggal di Semarang (Harder dan de Jong 2001: 332). Nama Sunan Tembayat itu sendiri merupakan pemberian Sunan Kalijaga karena metode berdakwah yang digunakan oleh Sunan Tembayat adalah tembayatan (musyawarah).

Versi yang mengatakan bahwa Sunan Tembayat sebenarnya adalah Prabu Brawijaya V mengatakan bahwa setelah runtuhnya Majapahit Prabu Brawijaya V meninggalkan istana dan melakukan perjalanan ke Jawa hingga tibalah ia di Semarang. Di sana ia menikah dengan seorang puteri bangsawan yang kaya raya sehingga ia mewarisi harta yang melimpah ruah ketika mertuanya meninggal (Fox, 1991:29). Sedang berdasarkan Serat Sejarah Dalem karya Ki Padmasoesatro, Sunan Tembayat adalah putera Brawijaya V yang ke-94 yang bernama Raden Jaka Supana alias Raden Tembayat. 
.....

Sedang menurut serat Kandha Sunan Tembayat bukanlah putera Prabu Brawijaya V melainkan anak putera Brawijaya V, yakni Batara Katong, yang memiliki memiliki anak perempuan yang dinikahi oleh Sunan Tembayat

sumber: Ismail, Arifuddin. Ziarah ke Makam Wali: Fenomena Tradisional di Masa Modern.Jurnal Al-Qalam Vol 19, No 2. 2013. Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Agama Makassar,
http://www.jurnalalqalam.or.id/index.php/Alqalam/article/view/156/140


2. John Pemberton membahas Gunung Lawu sebagai salah satu tempat di mana konon Prabu Brawijaya V muksa dalam legenda.
There are two great geological foci of magical Power and Supernatural forces in south Central Java: Mt. Lawu, situated forty kilometres due east of Solo, and the south coast area of Parangtritis facing the Indian Ocean immediately south of Yogyakarta. The latter opens out into the oceanic realm of the Queen of the South (Ratu Kidul), the powerful spirit-queen who, as noted in earlier chapters, performed as spiritual consort and protectress of Central Javanese kings. The former is reckoned the site of the ascetic vanishing (muksa) of Majapahit's last king, Brawijaya V, and the realm  of the spirit-king Sunan Lawu. 
....
The entire area is crisscrossed with spiritual traces of political exiles, legendary ascetics, aspiring kings, and revolutionaries -- traces left, for example, by the late fifteenth-century Brawijaya V, Javano-Islamic ascetic heroes of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Hamengkubuwana I and Mangkunagara I of the eighteenth century, and recent figures such as the Indonesian revolutionary General Sudirman.

sumber: Pemberton, John. On the Subject of Java. 1994. Cornell University Press


3. Dhurorudin Mashad menceritakan beberapa versi penyerbuan terhadap Majapahit. (Sayangnya banyak salah ketik di buku yang bersangkutan).

VERSI PERTAMA (I) menyebutkan Majapahit yang kala itu dipimpin oleh R. Kertabhui [sic] (Brawijaya V) diserang kerajaan Demak pimpinan Raden Patah, anak kandungnya sendiri dari seorang selir (putri) cina anak peranakan muslim yang bernama Kia[sic] Bantong atau Syekh Bantong). 
.... 
Kadipaten Demak pimpinan R. Patah membentuk Dewan Penasehat diberi nama Walisanga oleh Sunan Ampel(tahun 1474). Karena adipati Demak lama sekali tak menghadap ke Majapahit, adipati Terung (R. Kusen) ditugaskan raja untuk menjemput R. Patah menghadap Prabu Brawijaya  V/Raja Majapahit. Tapi Tapi Sultan Demak tidak mau karena ayahnya dianggap masih kafir. Bahkan sebagai antisipasi penghukuman dari Majapahit akibat pembangkangannya, R. Patah telah lebih dahulu mengumpulkan para bupati pesisir seperti Tuban, Madura, dan Surabaya serta para Sunan untuk bersama-sama menyerbu Majapahit. 
.... 
Dalam perang itu, tentara Majapahit berhasil dipukul mundur sampai ke ibukota, cuma rumah adipati Terung yang selamat karena ia memeluk Islam. Karena terdesak, Brawijaya V mengungsi ke (Tanjung) Sengguruh beserta keluarganya diiringi sang Patih. Akibat serangan dari puteranya sendiri di tahun 1399 Saka atau 1477 M ini Brawijaya V meloloskan diri bersama pengikut setia, sehingga ketika Raden Patah (termasuk para Sunan) tiba, istana sudah kosong.
....
Dengan dikawal Pasukan Bhayangkara dan beberapa kesatuan pasukan yang tersisa, Brawijaya V menyingkir ke arah timur, dan sementara tinggal di Blambangan. Adipati Blambangan, memperkuat barisan pasukan ini. Penduduk Blambangan juga sukarela ikut menggabungkan diri untuk melindungi Brawijaya V secara ekstra ketat. Selama di Blambangan, Prabhu Brawijaya terus terusik batinnya. Raden Patah, yang biasa beliau panggil dengan nama Patah ternyata tega melakukan pemberontakan. Sabdo Palon dan Naya Genggong menambahkan[sic] hati Sang Prabhu bahwa : Nasi sudah menjadi bubur, dan tidak patut disesali lagi.
Sementara itu, setelah dinobatkan menjadi Sultan Demak bergelar Panembahan Jinbun, adipati Bintara mengutus Lembu Peteng (saudara seayah R. Patah) dan Jaran Panoleh ke Sengguruh meminta sang Prabu agar masuk Islam. Menurut satu versi, beliau tetap menolak sehingga Sengguruh disebut dan Prabu Brawijaya V lari kepulau Bali. Namun versi lain yang lebih kuat menyebut R. Patah mengutus Sunan Kalijaga yang ternyata berhasil mengislamkan Brawijaya V. 
..... 
Adapun cerita VERSI KEDUA (II) menyebutkan fakta lain bahwa Majapahit runtuh diserang Girindrawardana (Kediri), bukan oleh Demak. Informasi bahwa Majapahit runtuh akibat serangan Demak, dapat ditelusur akibat kesalahpahaman semata. De Graf (juga Mohammad Yamin) mencatat bahwa nama Girindrawardhana yang menyerang Majapahit dan merebut kekuasaan Brawijaya V seringkali disalahpahami sebagai sosok yang sama dengan tokoh Sunan Giri, seorang ulama muslim anggota Walisanga. Pendapat serupa dikemukakan Muhammad Yamin, yang menyatakan bahwa nama "Giri" dalam beberapa babad yang menceritakan tentang keruntuhan Majapahit merupakan nama seorang penganut Hindu bernama: Girindrawardhana. Pengarang Babad Tanah Jawi dan Serat Kanda (ditulis abad XVII) telah mencampuradukkan antara nama Girindrawardhana dan Sunan Giri. Padahal kedua tokoh itu sama sekali berbeda. Dari sinilah kesalahpahaman tersebut berlanjut, bahwa sampai pada pendapat bahwa Majapahit runtuh akibat serangan Demak.
Prof Dr. N.J. Krom dalam buku Javaansche Geschiedenis juga menolak anggapan bahwa penyerang Majapahit era Brawijaya V (Kertabhumi) adalah Demak. Menurut Krom serangan yang dianggap menewaskan Brawijaya V itu dilakukan oleh Girindrawardhana. Prof Moh. Yamin dalam buku Gajah Mada juga menjelaskan bahwa Kertabhumi/Brawijaya V tewas dalam keraton yang diserang Rama Wijaya (nama lain Girindrawadhana) dari Keling/Kediri. Sejak itu Majapahit telah berhenti sebagai ibukota kerajaan.

Sumber: Mashad, Dhurorudin. Muslim Bali: Mencari kembali Harmoni yang Hilang. 2014. Pustaka Al-Kautsar.

4. Nancy Florida, dalam meringkas Pustaka Raja Puwara menyebutkan Brawijaya V wafat.

Pustaka Raja Puwara: Sri Pamekas VI sumambet Babad Itih I, dumugi Sinuhun Ing Kalijaga
Author: Ronggawarsita, R Ng. (1802-1873)
Composed: Surakarta, mid 19th c. 
.... 
Having migrated to Java from Palembang, Raden Patah, the son of Brawijaya  and the Chinese princess is installed by his father as the adipati of Bintara (Demak). The wali grant him the title Senapati Jimbun, and with their support, he and his allies attack and defeat Majapahit (MS p. 180). Brawijaya escapes and flees to the west; he dies at Saparhuru to the south of Ardi Sewu. Senapati Jinbun finds his father's body and buries it in Demak. For forty days Sunan Giri Kadhaton (Sunan Giri II) reigns as (temporary) ruler of Demak. At the end of the forty-day period, the wali install Senapati Jimbun as the first Sultan of Demak with title Sultan Syah Alam Akbar.

Sumber: Florida, Nancy K. Javanese Literature in Surakarta Manuscripts vol 2: Manuscripts of The Mangkunagaran Palace. 2000. Cornell University.

5. Bagus Laksana, membahas tentang konsep Moksa dalam kisah akhir Brawijaya V dan dugaan bahwa kisah tersebut sengaja agar ada kesinambungan antara kekuasaan lama dan kekuasaan baru.

In other words, the last episode of Brawijaya's life is depicted both in term of Javano-Islamic mystical anthropology of sangkan paran as well as as in the Hindu understanding of moksa. It has to be recalled that the moksas of last Hindu-Buddhist kings of Java have been used by certain Javanese text as a way to assert the unbroken continuity between the dying dynasties and the upcoming ones. This is so because in this framework of moksa these kings did not die in the violent battle against the Muslim forces, but rather they disappeared and attained a spiritual height. Thus the idea of moksa evades the problem of radical and violent change, something that is culturally troubling for Javanese.
This principle of continuity, however, takes on another different form in Javanese account of Brawijaya, namely, through certain kind of conversion, understood not as a radical break with past, but rather as a deeper reconciliation and continuity. The accounts of Brawijaya V's conversion to Islam are known in Java, and, very interestingly and probably quite intentionally, are put next to the narratives of his moksa. As Rinkes has pointed out, the Javanese seem to see this conversion as continuity on account that "there is little difference between Hinduism in Java and the forms by which Islam found its acceptance, apart from terminology. In this framework, Brawijaya could have been a Muslim but still had an experience of moksa. Again, what is at stake in the various accounts of the last days of Brawijaya V is the idea of continuity with all its possible tensions and the ambiguities.

sumber: Laksana, Bagus. Muslim and Catholic Pilgrimage Practices: Explorations Through Java. 2014. Ashgate Publishing.

6. Terjemahan Babad Jaka Tingkir oleh Moelyono Sastronaryatmo

Selesai dan sempurnalah sudah segala puji-pujian kepada mereka, berikut diceritakan Babad Tanah Jawa. Dinamakan jaman Srikalaraja, cerita para ratu-ratu  diawali cerita sesudahnya. Ialah Prabu Dewaraja. Raja Majapahit yang terakhir, beliau bernama sang Prabu Brawijaya ke V, tatkala mudanya bernama Raden Alit. Konon Negara Majapahit berdiri sampai 100 tahun umurnya, beliau Prabu Brawijaya ke V yang bertakhta terakhir, merupakan turun ke tujuh dari Raja-Raja terdahulu yang menguasai negara Majapahit.
Prabu Suruh sebagai awal Raja di Negara Majapahit, setelah mangkat beliau diganti putranya bernama Sang Prabu Anom sebagai Raja Majapahit yang ke II, belum disebut Prabu Brawijaya. Setelah mangkat diganti putranya bergelar Sri Brawijaya ke I, kemudian putranya bergelar Brawijaya II sebagai penggantinya, setelah mangkat diganti lagi putranya.
Gelar Prabu Brawijaya III, diganti oleh putranya bergelar Brawijaya IV. Kemudian diganti oleh putranya bergelar pula Prabu Brawijaya V atau nama kecilnya Raden Alit. Beliau Prabu Brawijaya V adalah turun ke tujuh dari Raja-raja Majapahit terdahulu. Cerita yang berikut di bawah ini dimulai dari sesudah Negara Majapahit bedah, atau dimulai sesudah Prabu Brawijaya V (yang terakhir) meloloskan diri dari Kraton Majapahit (musna, muksa tak diketahui ke mana perginya, mati atau hidup).
Hilang dari manusapada (dunia) ini, beliau mempercepat dirinya kembali ke alam muksapada (muksapada lawan kata dari manusapada), tiada karena "mati", akan tetapi beliau musna beserta badannya. Beliau kembali ke jaman kesucian atau jaman kesempurnaan, sesungguhnya beliau Prabu Brawijaya V adalah manusia yang sempurna. Beliau adalah seorang yang sahid waskita tahu akan apa yang akan terjadi, tahu pula akan apa yang dinamakan mula dan akhir kehidupan di dunia ini. 
Beliau tiada was-was akan kehidupan di dunia ini, beliau hidup di dunia ini maupun beliau hidup pula di jaman kelanggengan (di alam baka maupun di alam fana). Sesungguhnya pula kehidupan di dunia kelanggengan itu, segala kemulyaan yang sesungguhnya ada di situ. Kalaupun dibandingkan dengan kehidupan kemulyaan yang ada di keraton di dunia ini bukan lagi menjadi bandingannya. Sang Prabu Brawijaya (V) muksa pada waktu itu diikuti oleh para punggawa negara yang sudah tahu pula akan kemuksaan. 
Mereka di antaranya Rakyan Mahapatih Gajahmada, para satriya, dan para bupati, para mantri dan para punggawa, para wadya bala Majapahit. Kesemuanya dapat turut bersama-sama muksa Sang Prabu Brawijaya kembali sempurna kejaman kelanggengan dikarenakan mereka pula telah putus akan "ilmu kelanggengan" (kemuksaan). Mereka tabu akan ilmu sejati, mereka tahu pula akan ilmu kasunyatan. Mereka pula turut serta mengiringkan Prabu Brawijaya (V) mencapai alam  muksa, namun bagi mereka yang 'bodoh' (belum menghayati arti kasunyatan hidup ini), tentu saja tak dapat mencapai alam muksa.

Tak ada bedanya dulu dan sekarang, manakala orang tak bertanya akan hakekat kehidupan kesunyatan ini, akhirnya pun akan sengsara menyesal di kelak kemudian harinya. Mereka adalah orang yang goblog pandir, bodoh tak tahu akan rahasia kehidupan manusia di dunia ini. Kenyataan akan ilmu kehidupan, merupakan ilmu yang utama yang membicarakan pengertian-pengertian bagaimana melepas diri ini, mencapai kebebasan dari panandang akhirnya ke alam kemuksaan atau kelepasan. Itulah akhir dari orang-orang yang goblog dan pandir celaka dirinya, lain pula dengan mereka orang-orang yang telah menghayati hakekat kehidupan nyata di dunia ini (ilmu kesempurnaan).
Mereka yang turut bersama-sama muksa dengan Prabu Brawijaya (V) sejumlah sepertiga punggawa Majapahit, namun mereka tergolong yang sudah lanjut usia saja. Adapun mereka yang tergolong masih muda-muda diperintahkan raja untuk tinggal di Negara Majapahit, maksud raja tak ada lain mereka diharapkan (ditugaskan) untuk meneruskan keturunan-keturunan. Mereka diperintahkan untuk tidak melawan kepada pendatang baru, mereka pula diperintahkan untuk masuk Agama Islam yang luhung itu. Namun kepada mereka kawula Majapahit yang telah menghayati akan keimanannya terhadap agama, tak ada bedanya mereka pun sebenarnya telah membawa pada dirinya iman Islam yang suci itu. "
Namun ada juga kebahagiaannya mereka yang diperintahkan oleh Prabu Brawijaya (V) untuk tinggal di Negara Majapahit itu, sebagai penganut Agama Buda mereka menerima menganut Agama Islam yang suci. Sesungguhnya Agama Islam yang luhung itu mulai masuk di Majapahit awal bedahnya kerajaan, dengan ditandai sengkalan 'Sirna Ilang Kertaning Bumi' atau Hilang musna ketentraman dunia" atau tahun 1400 A.J. (1478 A.D.), jaman berganti menginjak jaman Kalawijisaya.  
..... 
Amabakduana pon sawusing,
sampat paripurnaning pamudya,
kang winarneng panggalange,
lelagon kang ginelung,
pamugeling carita Jawi,
babading Tanah Jawa,
lelampahanipun,
para nata kang ginita,
wusing jaman Srikalaraja pepati,
Dewaraja semana.  
Jaman iku ingkang amekasi,
panjenenganira naranata,
Raden Alit duk timure,
jumeneng sang aprabu,
Erawjjaya ping gangsal nenggih,
ing nagri Majalengka,
jangkep satus tahun,
umuring ponang nagara,
turun sapta kang jumeneng narapati,
ing nagri Majalengka.

Wiwit prabu Suruh duk ing nguni,
sasedane ginantya ing putra,
Sang Prabu Anom namane,
pan kekalih puniku,
dereng nama Brawijaya Ji,
anulya putranira,
wiwit namanipun,
Sri Brawijaya kapisan,
putra nama Brawijaya kaping kalih,
nulya malih putranya.  
Nama Brawijaya kaping katri,
putranipun nama Brawijaya,
ingkang kaping sekawane,
Raden Alit puniku,
Brawijaya pingg limaneki,
jangkep ing tedhak sapta,
kuneng kang winuwus,
ing carita kang cinegat,
sabedhahe nagari ing Majapahit,
musnane Brawijaya.  
Lenyep saking manusapadeki,
apan sumengka mengawak braja,
minggah mring muksapadane,
datan kalawan lampus,
paripurna waluya jati,
ing jaman kasucian,
kasampurnanipun,
sang aprabu Brawijaya,
sampun putus patitising jatimurti,
waskitheng sangkan-paran.  
Datan samar kawuryaning urip,
urip trusing jaman kalanggengan,
pira-pira kamuktene,
ing karaton kang sestu,
sestu datan kena winilis,
pan tikel pira-pira,
lan duk meksihipun,
neng jaman nungsapada,
cinarita duk muksane Sribupati,
dinulur ing punggawa. 
Gajahmada Rakyan Mahapatih
lawan sagung bupati satriya,
punggawa para mantrine,
sawadya-kuswanipun,
ingkang sampun sami winasis,
putus ring kamuksan,
tan samar ing kawruh,
tinarimeng kasunyatan,
bisa milu ing muksane Sribupati,
kang bodho datan bisa.  
Nadya nguni sumilih ing mangkin,
yen wong tanpa ataki-takia,
kapataka ing temahe,
anelangsa ing pungkur,
kumprung pengung tan wrin ing wadi,
wadining widayaka,
nayakaning kawruh,
kawruh marng kalepasan,
praptaning don si bodho aneniwasi,
beda lan kang wus bisa.  
Watawise kang tumut sang aji,
sapratigan wadya Majalengka,
ingkang tuwa-tuwa bae,
kang anem kinen kantun,
amencarna wiji ing wuri,
kinen sami nungkula,
manjing Islam luhung,
kejawi kang sampun samya,
nungkul batin wus anggawa Islam suci,
samya anandhang iman.  
Nanging ana bekjane kang kari,
ingkang datan bisa milu muksa,
dene salin agamane,
kang tata Buda kupur,
sinalinan agama gusti,
sami anandhang iman,
Islam pan linuhung,
sirnaning kang tata Buda,
duk bedhahe nagari ing Majapahit,
semana sinengkalan.  
Sirna Ilang Pakartining Bumi,
duk semana sinalinan jaman,
Kalawijisaya alame

Sumber: Babad Jaka Tingkir, diterjemahkan tahun 1981 oleh Moelyono Sastronaryatmo.
http://perpustakaansidodadi.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Babad-Jaka-Tingkir-Moelyono-Sastronaryatmo.pdf

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Correspondence between Don Rosa and I



A decade ago, I bought Life and Time of Scrooge McDuck Companion by Don "Keno" Rosa, published by Gemstone Publishing. One of the story was The Cowboy Captain of Cutty Sark. While the story itself was very entertaining, I couldn't help but notice that Keno made a mistake in naming his character.

Inspired by Q&A in that book, I sent e-mail to advise him about the character name and ironically, it made me do a little research by myself.

My first email was sent on December 28, 2016:

Dear Keno,
I hope you still have this e-mail.

I'm your fans, even before knowing your name (Thanks to Surien, an employee of Gramedia Groups which published Donald Duck Comics in Indonesia.. She wrote an article about you in one of the magazines).

We, Indonesian Readers, have heard about "The Cowboy Captain of the Cutting Shark", the told of Scrooge McDuck's adventure in Java. Unfortunately the story have not been published yet in Indonesia.

Fortunately, I found illegal copies in internet a few months ago (but the sites had been taken down.. maybe Disney had suited the owner) and found "Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck Companion" in bookstores yesterday (and only one copy!).

Although you try to describe Java accurately, you still fail in some aspect.

Firstly, the most obvious mistake was the headband/headcover. We call it "blangkon" (you can find it in Google Images). If you want to repair it, you can do that by add some motives (we call it 'batik') in blangkon and ask the colorist to color 'blangkon' mostly in black or brown. It rarely colored in red.

Secondly, The name of Sultan Djokja was Hamengkubuwono. The current Sultan was Hamengkubuwono X and the Sultan in 1940s was Hamengkubuwono IX, then in the setting of your stories, it would be Hamengkubuwono VII or Hamengkubuwono VI (you should do more research). Mangkunegara was a duke in Solo and have nothing to do with Djokja.

But you were right describing rivalities between Djokja and Solo which still happened until now.. :lol:
My ex-girlfriend (now in Fairfield, Iowa.. sigh..) laugh when I showed her the story (the illegal copies found in Internet). She always proud of her trait from Solo. :p

Thirdly, Batavia is on the north, Krakatoa is on the the West of Java (not East of Java like a title of Hollywood movie) on Sunda trait, Madoera (Madura) is on the East of Java on Madura trait. Hence, if Sultan Solo went from Batavia to Madoera and Scrooge McDuck tried to after him, then they wouldn't pass Krakatoa. But most people won't realize the mistake.

Fourthly, you can write Madura instead of Madoera. It will be easily read by english reader (the "oe'" was old spelling, influenced by the Dutch, and pronounced as "u"). By the way, Karapan Sapi still exist today and of course, Sultan Djokja and Solo is not taking a part in the race. :p

Fifthly, Batavia was totally under Dutch Rule while both Sultan Djokja and Solo was limited to their town (Djokja and Solo was a city in Central Java -- nowadays Djokja was a province, separated from Central Java) while Batavia was a city on the north of West Java. I doubt one of them had a land or plain in Batavia in the past. Unfortunately, I cannot prove they didn't have.. :p

Six, although most of Javanese Muslim, the traditional rarely pronounced "Allah". They added "Gusti" (means Lord). Hence, instead of 
"Huh? What did you say? I can't hear anything since Allah yelled at me several minutes ago
you can add into:
"Huh? What did you say? I can't hear anything since Gusti Allah yelled at me several minutes ago "
It would be more sounding like Javanese. 


In the end,
regardless a few inaccuracies I found in the story, I enjoyed it! I really enjoy the fiction that 'car' was first build in Batavia (hey.. I live in Jakarta). Enjoy the fiction about traffic fine was first issued in Batavia.. woww.. :lol:

And you're right how Javanese (actually all people in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore) pronounced a two-adjective-noun word in reverse way.
longhorn = long (panjang) and horn (tanduk). But we will call them "tanduk panjang" which will be "hornlong" in english. :lol:


best regards,

Kunderemp Ratnawati Hardjito a.k.a
Narpati Wisjnu Ari Pradana
Jakarta, Indonesia.
And he responded quickly at the same day:


>>>> Firstly, the most obvious mistake was the headband/headcover. We call it "blangkon" (you can find it in Google Images). If you want to repair it, you can do that by add some motives (we call it 'batik') in blangkon and ask the colorist to color 'blangkon' mostly in black or brown. It rarely colored in red. 

I have virtually NO ability to tell the colorists even at the company I work for how to color my comics properly. And less ability than that to compel the colorists at all the other publishers around the world to color things as I wish.
I don't see anyone in the story with a headband, so you must mean the turban-type head covers? I can see they are drawn too tiny and wrinkled to show patterns, so I can see why I might have left such off even if I knew about it. But I can tell that I was looking carefully at some pictures to see how the turbans were wrapped properly -- I can see two distinctly different wrapping styles, and I recall copying all the costumes from photos of 1880's native costumes.


>>>> Secondly, The name of Sultan Djokja was Hamengkubuwono. The current Sultan was Hamengkubuwono X and the Sultan in 1940s was Hamengkubuwono IX, then in the setting of your stories, it would be Hamengkubuwono VII or Hamengkubuwono VI (you should do more research). Mangkunegara was a duke in Solo and have nothing to do with Djokja. 

Oh! I don't mind when people try to find errors in my work. In fact, I *like* it -- I certainly DO make errors and when I find out about them I can correct them in future editions. But PLEASE don't say I should do "more research"!!!!!!!! I already spend WEEKS of research on every story I do, all work that I do for only my own amusement and out of respect for the stories and the readers -- I get paid NO extra for all that additional work. And each story only shows you the very TIP of the "iceberg" of the research I've done since I end up using only about 2% of the reams of notes I make, most of which I never find a use for. In fact, that Java story may have involved more research than anything I've ever done short of my Templar treasure stories. It involved research into Java history and customs, volcano facts and Krakatoa history, and even contacting Dutch translators to help me write out newspaper headlines and background store names.
 I just went and found the notebook filled with hundreds of facts and notes that I wrote during my research for that story. I see that I got the names of the sultans, and their photos, from an 1890's traveler's memoir titled ON THE SUBJECT OF JAVA. I see that the book stated that during 1861-1892 the Sultan of Surakarta (Solo) was Pakubuwana IX. And during 1881-1896 the Sultan of Djokjakarta was Mangkunagara V. I see my notes say he was the "res. sultan in Batavia"... if that means "resident sultan" which is different than the main sultan, I don't know. I also am at the mercy of the correctness of the books I get my facts from. I personally don't know who was the Sultan of Djokja in 1882, but the book I got from the history library at the University of Louisville said it was Mangkunagara V. If that story is ever reprinted *again*, I will double-check that name. But it seems like you are not actually telling me that you know the name of the 1882 Sultan of Djokja. If you're IN Java, it's 10,000 times easier for YOU to find out that historical fact than it is for me. Can you please find a reference for me proving who was that 1882 sultan?
But PLEASE don't ever say I need to do "more research". 

>>>> Thirdly, Batavia is on the north, Krakatoa is on the the West of Java (not East of Java like a title of Hollywood movie) on Sunda trait, Madoera (Madura) is on the East of Java on Madura trait. Hence, if Sultan Solo went from Batavia to Madoera and Scrooge McDuck tried to after him, then they wouldn't pass Krakatoa.  
Of course, you are right. But my story obviously *needed* them to travel past Krakatoa. So that's the way they went. I can always think of several reasons why they did so that it wasn't worth mentioning in the story. Perhaps the sultan thought that prevailing winds would make it more difficult for a schooner to follow them in that direction. Perhaps they planned to make another stop on that side of Java that wasn't mentioned.


>>>> Fourthly, you can write Madura instead of Madoera. It will be easily read by english reader (the "oe'" was old spelling, influenced by the Dutch, and pronounced as "u").  

And I found that in 1882 it was commonly spelled as "Madoera" so that is what was important to me, not what spelling would be easier for a modern reader to pronounce.


>>>> Fifthly, Batavia was totally under Dutch Rule while both Sultan Djokja and Solo was limited to their town (Djokja and Solo was a city in Central Java -- nowadays Djokja was a province, separated from Central Java) while Batavia was a city on the north of West Java. I doubt one of them had a land or plain in Batavia in the past. 

What do you refer to here? "The King's Plain"? I don't know what translation of my story you are looking at, which is another *entirely different* problem! I have no control over how my stories are mis-translated around the world. "The King's Plain" was the large central city park in Batavia. My story did not say that it was land that belonged to one of the sultans. Apparently the translator of the version you read did not understand that "the King's Plain" was the name of a public park -- you mean he translated it as "the Sultan's land"? That was the mistake of the translator.
But wait -- you say you read this story in an American edition? So I don't know why you say that my story says that a sultan owned land in Batavia.


>>>> Six, although most of Javanese Muslim, the traditional rarely pronounced "Allah". They added "Gusti" (means Lord). 

Also in 1882? This would be rather difficult for me to have known. On the other hand, all of that dialogue would be "translated" for the reader from the original Javanese which was being spoken, so I'm not sure if an untranslated word like "Gusti" should be in that English version or not. But this is an interesting fact that I'll try to put into future reprints just to amaze another Java reader with my accuracy.
Thanks for writing! Virtually ALL readers assume that I'm simply making up all my history and authentic facts out of thin air like all the other writers & artists do. I am always pleased when someone notices the lengths I go to to TRY to get all my facts correct. I will check on the name of the 1882 Sultan of Djokja next time this story is reprinted by some publisher I have contact with.

After that, on the next day, I wrote

Dear Keno,

Yup.. You're right. It's easier for me to get the correct name.
My father have a list of Sultan Djokja.
(actually, even if my father didn't have it, I could asked my friend who lived in Djokja and got the name for you).

The Sultan of Djokja in 1883 was "Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII" and ruled between 1877 - 1921 and his real name (not important for comic, but for your curiousity) was Murtejo. 

(As I wrote before, the current Sultan of Djokja is Sultan Hamengkubuwono X and his real name was Herjuno Derpito)

Mangkunegara wasn't even lived in Djokja.  The traveler whose memoir you read probably had mistakenly thought Mangkunegara Palace was located in different city and concluded he was in Djokja.

I'm sorry for being rude.
I know it hard to had some history fact of my country, even in this internet-era.
(I used to edit some Javanese-history articles in wikipedia and I still feel the Javanese-related articles need to be edited).

Thanks for replying me..
Don't worry about the path of Sultan Solo's escaping, I didn't think about it in the first time I read. And you're right, you can explain it in many ways, so it is not important. (and I can't prove the Sultan of Solo [Pakubuwana IX] didn't experience Krakatoa... :smile: )

And relax,
by mentioning 'Batavia', 'Djokja', 'Solo', 'Pakubuwana', 'Mangkunegara', 'Karapan Sapi', and show  we know you had struggle to get facts for your story. (and one of my friends always humorously tell me) most of Indonesian doesn't know their own history.

And.. wow... you even drew a javanese rhinoceros with only-one-nose horn. If you were just ordinary comic-artist, you would probably drew the rhino with two-nose-horn.

Best regard,

Kunderemp Ratnawati Hardjito a.k.a
Narpati Wisjnu Ari Pradana
Jakarta, Indonesia.

However, Keno was not satisfied and asked again, on the same day.

>>>> The Sultan of Djokja in 1883 was "Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII" and ruled between 1877 - 1921  

I'm sure you are correct. But WHERE did this misinformation of the wrong name of "Mangkunagara V" AND wrong ruling date of "1881-1896" come from? Who is my "Mangkunagara V" and where and when did he rule, if he ruled anything?
(pause)
Okay.... I just plugged the name into Google and I found an entry that listed that name and ruling period under the heading of "Kerajaan Mangkunegara"... but I couldn't read any of the site's information (in Java-ese?). Can you tell me what "Kerajaan Mangkunegara" means? He was the Sultan of "Kerajaan"? Where is that?

And I answered in the same day

Dear Keno,

Kerajaan means "Kingdom". Raja means "King".
Kesultanan means "Sultanate". 
Keraton or Kraton means "Palace"
Pangeran means "Prince"

The structure of kingdom in Java after VOC came to Indonesia (added by some intrigue and strict protocol in Javanese history and culture) was a little bit confusing. 

Mangkunegara was an 'Adipati' and ruled 'Kadipaten Mangkunegaraan'. 
"Kadipaten" was (usually) an autonomous region inside a "Kerajaan" (Kingdom) but they had their own army.

I think we have to see the history of the first Sultan Solo, Sultan Djokja, and Mangkunegara to understand their relationship. 

Kesultanan SoloKesultanan Djokja, and Kadipaten Mangkunegaran was used to be a kingdom called Kesultanan Mataram. In 1755, after a war, it broke into two kingdom, Kesultanan Djokja (the first Sultan was Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I ) and Kasuhunan Solo (the first Sunan/Susuhunan/Sultan was Sri Susuhunan Pakubuwana III ).

Both Sultan and Sunan (Susuhunan) means the same thing and the same hierarchy. Kesultanan and Kasuhunan also means the same thing. 

In Solo or Surakarta case, both of them are interchangebly. Some people call the kingdom "Kesultanan Solo" or "Kesultanan Surakarta" while others call "Kasuhunan Surakarta" or "Kasunanan". Some people call the King of Solo as "Sultan Solo" while some others call "Susuhunan Solo" or "Sunan Solo". Note that "Kasuhunan" or "Kasunanan" only belong to Surakarta/Solo. Don't ask me why.. 

Back to the history,
Raden Mas Said or Pangeran Sambernyawa (the latter literally means "Prince of Soul Reaper"), a former ally of Hamengkubuwono I was unsatisfied with the division of Mataram. He attacked both Solo and Yogya. However, in 1757, he surrendered to Pakubuwono III, Sultan Solo. Then, witnessed by envoys from Hamengkubuwono I and VOC, his sovereignity was acknowledged by Pakubuwono III. 

However, Sultan Solo (and emissaries of Sultan Djokja and VOC) only acknowledge Pangeran Sambernyawa as Adipati which known as Mangkunegara I ( the complete title was Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya Mangkunegara I  or abbreviated as KGPAA Mangkunegara I ) and his territory was called Kadipaten Mangkunegaran. 

Theoretically, Mangkunegara sovereignity compared to Sultan Solo should be just like a governor to president. However, probably due to political reason and the weakening of Kesultanan Solo, sometimes the Dutch treat Adipati Mangkunegara as the third king of Java (the other two was Sultan Solo and Sultan Djokja). 

You can read the complete history in Wikipedia Articles, Mataram Sultanate under the section "Division of Mataram".

The Kadipaten Mangkunegaran on the east of Solo. ( Djokja was on the south of Solo). 

I attached a map of Mataram (Kesultanan Solo, Kesultanan Djokja, Kadipaten Mangkunegaran, Kadipaten Pakualaman [it was a different story]) in 1830 from Wikipedian in Indonesian Language's Article: Kadipaten Mangkunegaran. 

Note the 1830 was the year after Java-War and the territory of Dutch ( Indonesian: Belanda) was expanded while the territory of both sultanate (Solo and Djokja) was reduced. Please, remember what I wrote before, that Kraton Mangkunegara (Mangkunegara Palace) was located in Surakarta (Solo). 

In conclusion,
answering your questions:
Yup.. Mangkunegara V had territory called as Kadipaten Mangkunegaran. And he was a ruler with a title KGPAA (Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya).

Could his territory be called as Kerajaan (Kingdom)? 
Theoretically, it couldn't. 

Let me translate a paragraph from Wikipedian in Indonesian Language: Kadipaten Mangkunegaran:

Penguasa Mangkunegaran, berdasarkan perjanjian pembentukannya, berhak menyandang gelar Pangeran (secara formal disebutKangjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya, mirip dengan Fürst di Eropa) tetapi tidak berhak menyandang gelar Sunan atau pun Sultan. Karena itu, penyebutannya sebagai kerajaan secara hukum tidak tepat.

The ruler of Mangkunegaran, according to the treaty which founded the region, had a right to assumed the title Pangeran/Prince ( formally called as Kangjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Arya, similar with Fürst in Europe ) but should not assumed the title Sunan and/or Sultan. Hence, calling the region as kerajaan (kingdom) was inaccurate. 


But practically, since Mangkunegara (from Mangkunegara I) had his own army, had power to rule autonomous region almost as wide as Kesultanan Solo, and the Dutch itself sometimes treat Mangkunegara as the third king of Java, it can be understand why some people called it Kerajaan Mangkunegara (Kingdom of Mangkunegara). 

(I've just edited an article in Indonesian Language Wikipedia which contained list of King of Jawa [Daftar Raja-Raja Jawa] -- replacing Kerajaan Mangkunegara with Kadipaten Mangkunegaran )

Dear Keno,
I hope I didn't bore you with long history. I hope it can clear who Mangkunegara V was.



regards,
Kunderemp Ratnawati Hardjito a.k.a
Narpati Wisjnu Ari Pradana
PS: Do you know any mailing list about Duckburg fans which you can recommend to me?

And I also attached a map of Central Javanese at that time



And he answered

>>>> I hope I didn't bore you with long history. I hope it can clear who Mangkunegara V was. Yes, NOW I know who Mangkunegara V was! He was the guy who IMPERSONATED the Sultan of Djokja and got the two bulls that $crooge had promised to the real Sultan whom he had never met in person! The Sultan of Solo's people never said anything -- they had heard that $crooge had brought the bulls for the S of D, as you see the "emitter" saying, but when they saw Mangkunegara V trying to buy them, the S of S decided to also try to get them. Note that the S of S never refers to the other as the S of D -- he knew that's not who it was and he assumed $crooge also knew it.
YES! (Whew... that was tough!)

And I laughed when I read the reply. I know I would get this kind of reply because I read similar reply about the same topic on the book I bought.

So I finally ended our discussion.

I couldn't answer anything but.. :laugh on loud:
No wonder I always laugh when I read your comic.

Nice..
You found another way to answer my critics.. :lol:

Thx for replying..

Narpati W.A. Pradana

And
Yes, thank you, Don Rosa for replying my e-mail.

By the way, The Cowboy Captain of Cutty Sark was finally published in Indonesia years after the correspondence ( I believe somewhere about 2009-2011) and the name of both sultan was censored and replaced by "Sultan Wetan" (Sultan of the East) and "Sultan Kulon" (Sultan of the West).

Tuesday, June 06, 2017

Kenapa Ketuhanan di Urutan Terakhir Dalam Pidato Soekarno

Kenapa Soekarno menaruh "Ketuhanan" di bagian terakhir dalam pidatonya? Kalau kalian membaca pidatonya secara utuh pasti mengerti bahwa penempatan ini bukan karena beliau meremehkan faktor "Tuhan" tetapi sebagai strategi karena topik ini paling kontroversial.

Salah satu strategi diskusi adalah menempatkan di awal topik yang lebih besar peluangnya untuk disepakati dan menempatkan di bagian akhir, topik yang paling memicu konflik. Karena itu, Bung Karno menempatkan "Kebangsaan" karena ia percaya semua yang hadir ingin menjadi bangsa baru, yakni Bangsa Indonesia (dan kelak menjelma menjadi "Persatuan Indonesia" setelah dikaji lebih lanjut). Setelah semua sila-sila itu dia bahas, barulah di bagian akhir ia tetap mengajukan "Ketuhanan" sebagai bagian dari dasar negara karena Bung Karno menyadari sifat religius bangsa ini.

Setelah BPUPKI menerima usul Bung Karno, barulah diwakili oleh tim kecil, mereka mengutak-atik urutannya, mengubah istilahnya agar lebih mudah diterima (misalnya "Internasionalisme" menjadi "Kemanusiaan") dan akhirnya tanggal 18 Agustus, jadilah Pancasila yang kita kenal sekarang. 

Jadi kalau ada seorang tokoh agama mengatakan dengan kata-kata kasar "Pancasila-nya Soekarno, ketuhanan ada di (maaf) pantat", saya rasa itu karena kurang pahamnya beliau tentang sejarah perdebatan Pancasila saat itu. Sejujurnya, menurut saya bukan sepenuhnya salah beliau, karena banyak generasi hasil cuci otak orde baru yang masih berpikiran sama walaupun tak menggunakan kata-kata sekasar itu.

Untuk kisah lahirnya Pancasila dari awal sidang (29 Mei 1945 -- bukan pidato Muhammad Yamin! )  hingga menjadi Pancasila yang kita kenal sekarang (18 Agustus 1945), silakan lihat yang dikisahkan Bung Hatta dalam memoarnya. Kutipannya bisa dibaca di http://tulisanhatta.blogspot.co.id/2017/06/lahirnya-pancasila-dikutip-dari-memoar.html?view=flipcard